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The answer can be fond in The ARRL Handbook 2019, Vol 3, although it's spreaded across different chapters. In short, SNR is typically calculated for the noise floor of 2500 Hz SSB signal. Particularly this is how WSJT-X calculates negative SNRs for FT8 and other modes. Now the trick is that by deviding the bandwidth in half you decrease the noise floor by 3 ...

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