30

None of them. You say you are in the United States. In general, all radio transmissions fall into one of three categories: The operator is allowed to transmit on that frequency (amateur, "business band", aviation, military, etc.) The radio is allowed to transmit on that frequency (CB, FRS, MURS). The transmissions are very low-power ("Part 15": WiFi, ...


27

The simplex calling frequencies (146.520/446.000 Mhz) are intended for FM simplex communication, while the other pair (144.200/432.100) are for SSB. In general use, the term "simplex" implies FM modulation since FM is commonly used in both simplex and duplex operation. SSB, CW, and other modes are generally used for longer distance, simplex-only ...


23

Bad etiquette and illegal. Bad etiquette because anyone else scanning the repeater will hear your useless silence, and illegal by §97.119: §97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel at the end of each communication, and at least ...


19

In the United States, Under the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, §97.113 "Prohibited transmissions": (a) No amateur station shall transmit (2) Communications for hire or for material compensation, direct or indirect, paid or promised, except as otherwise provided in these rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control ...


18

The $492/f$ formula is for an ideal antenna in free space, the $468/f$ is an estimate for real antennas at a reasonable height over ground. The $492/f$ formula is a conversion from metric units to English units for the fundamental frequency and wavelength ($\lambda$) formula. $c = 3\times 10^8_{m/s}$ (the velocity of light) and $f =$ frequency -- \begin{...


18

The GMRS and FRS bands are governed by the FCC and have specific requirements not just for use and power output, but for equipment that is allowed. One of the requirements is that radios used for GMRS service be part 95 certified and FCC certified for GMRS use: §95.129 Station equipment. Every station in a GMRS system must use transmitters the FCC has ...


17

Completely legal. In fact, it's common practice to identify repeaters (both in the amateur service and in public safety/commercial) with exactly this method. That said, you likely won't make many QSOs with it. There aren't many people who would be prepared to immediately respond if they started hearing FM morse on 146.52 (the typical hailing frequency for ...


17

They are legal to use, but only on the amateur bands. (Of course, you'll need to get a license first). There was a lot of debate on whether they were legal, but the FCC finally stated that they were. Thus the older search results you found, such as this one. Since they are not type-accepted, they are not legal to use on other bands such as FRS, GMRS, etc.


17

The ARRL runs a booth at Dayton Hamvention since 2012 where people can submit their HTs to be tested for spectral purity. Over the years 2016-2019, 100% of the Alinco, Icom, Kenwood, and Yaesu HTs they tested were compliant with the standards laid out in Section 97.307. Only 7.5% of the Baofeng HTs they tested were compliant, with 27% being "borderline" (...


16

You can, but you probably don't want to. CB radios are limited to a set of 40 channels, most don't have frequency control. That somewhat limits the utility in the ham band where we have a very wide swath of frequency we can use. A converted CB radio would, at best, have control over only a narrow portion of the 10 meter band. They are also limited in power....


15

If I just wanted to pass the test, then judging by some online practice tests, I could get all the way to Extra on my electrical knowledge, common sense, and a bit of luck, but that's not what I want to do! I think that they body of knowledge they are testing may once have been fairly focused, but it has become a bit muddled by attempts to include new ...


15

20 wpm. §97-119: (b) The call sign must be transmitted with an emission authorized for the transmitting channel in one of the following ways: (1) By a CW emission. When keyed by an automatic device used only for identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words per minute;


14

Yes, you can take all three exams in sequence at the same session and obtain an Extra class license. (I did and had no trouble.) Doing this, rather than getting a lower license class and upgrading later, has the small advantage that you will be assigned a shorter sequential call sign (without having to request one when you upgrade), as well as not paying ...


13

To extend on the legal part of the answer: Hams can use any radio to transmit, as long as they are in the right frequency band, are transmitting using allowed power, etc. Non-licensed radio services on the other hand are subject to a host of restrictions, generally including fixed antennas, small power limits, radio-by-radio certification, etc. To put ...


13

The issue came up recently when one amateur radio user petitioned the FCC to permit encrypted communications for emergency operations with the primary goal of complying with HIPAA health privacy laws. The ARRL urged the denial of this petition, and the FCC subsequently denied the petition. The major points of the ARRL's arguments were: it is ARRL’s ...


13

As I understand it, it's legal under FCC rules for anyone, licensed or not, to use any frequency or mode of radio communication as necessary in an emergency. This includes, but is not limited to, police/fire/EMS radios, CB, ham (even tuned outside legal ham bands, if the hardware has the capability), using voice in digital-only or CW-only sub-bands, etc. ...


12

Prior to the internet getting a continuous stream of audio from a manned space mission was difficult, even when the mission was overhead, but, of course, due to orbital mechanics it often isn't overhead. Amateur Radio enthusiasts would request and often gain permission to retransmit audio of space flights, and with some coordination and planning you could ...


12

It is not required any more for any US license, as of 2008. It has not been required for the technician license since 1991. It is still required in some areas, and some international amateur radio licenses, in particular the IARP license, which may be used by US amateurs to operate outside of the US in IARP countries. Bottom line is, however, that fewer and ...


12

Were the contacts on the day of a major contest? Chances are that some other station with a callsign close to yours was operating and several operators misread his call as yours. I, too, get the occasional QSL card or eQSL for a time when I wasn't operating (and they are usually during a major contest). Unless you have definitive proof that someone else ...


12

Fees to obtain a license are set by and payable to the volunteer examiner coordinator. They are typically small to free, and limited by §97.527 to reimbursement "for out-of-pocket expenses incurred in preparing, processing, administering, or coordinating an examination for an amateur operator license." Some VECs and their fees: ARRL: \$15 W5YI: \$14 GLAARG:...


12

I believe you have encountered a Part 15 radio station. United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Part 15 (47 CFR 15) covers such things as garage door openers and the like. As such, and due to the fact that they are unlicensed by definition, there is no station-identification requirement. Note that this section covers both intentional and ...


12

There are two different "Title 47"s in play here. Title 47 of the US Code, as referred to by rclocher3, contains laws passed by Congress on the subject of telecommunications. Most interesting for our purposes is Chapter 5, Subchapter 1 which establishes the FCC. It sets the compositon and appointment rules of the FCC, regulates how the FCC can spend money ...


11

Line A Part 97.303 section m states: (1) No amateur station shall transmit from north of Line A in the 420–430 MHz segment. See §97.3(a) for the definition of Line A. The definition of Line A in part 97.3(a) is: (29) Line A. Begins at Aberdeen, WA, running by great circle arc to the intersection of 48 deg. N, 120 deg. W, thence along parallel 48 deg. N, ...


11

IANAL, but based on my limited knowledge of US amateur radio regulations: Disable all encryption, as encrypted communications are not allowed within the amateur radio service. Yes, WEP counts as encryption, too. So does HTTPS, SSH or SMTP with STARTTLS. One of the few things you can allow is plain-text HTTP. Set the network SSID to your call sign. This ...


11

FCC 97.15(b) provides a limited amount of protection for Amateur Radio Operators who desire to erect antenna structures in the pursuit of their radio activity: Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna structure may be erected at heights and dimensions sufficient to accommodate amateur service communications. (State and local regulation of a ...


11

The question pools are available online from NCVEC: 2011 pool 2015 pool I downloaded these and ran them through diff. These are the big changes I noticed: Section G3E, which is about digital operating procedure, is significantly changed. There isn't anything especially new technology-wise there, but the question pool is quite different. Additionally, ...


11

Yes, they are. Generally speaking, authentication is legal, obfuscating is not legal. So you could do a cryptographically signed hash that would be legal in the United States to transmit over Amateur Radio. It's worth mentioning that there is some debate as to how legal a cryptographically signed hash would be. I believe it would be legal, so long as it was ...


11

That's a good question---and one that is heavily under debate currently. The FCC originally limited symbol rates as a way of limiting bandwidth for data modes indirectly (it made sense at the time). But now that there are more advanced modulations (like the various forms of phase shift keying) that can exceed the symbol rate limitations in less bandwidth ...


11

The key wording is in 97.9(b) as referenced in 97.119: ...is authorized to exercise the rights and privileges of the higher operator class... and 97.119 says: "When the control operator is a person who is exercising the rights and privileges authorized by §97.9(b)..." So you only need to use the /AE suffix when you are using privileges only available ...


11

The Current FCC Regulations (as of July 2018) Parts 97.305(c) and 97.307(f) regulate digital modes primarily by symbol rate. The table in 97.305(c) maps bands/frequencies to specific symbol rate limitations in 97.307(f) as follows: (2) No non-phone emission shall exceed the bandwidth of a communications quality phone emission of the same modulation type. ...


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