22

Bad etiquette and illegal. Bad etiquette because anyone else scanning the repeater will hear your useless silence, and illegal by §97.119: §97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel at the end of each communication, and at ...


17

A cavity filter is inductors and capacitors. Something like this: (from amateur-radio-wiki.net) There are several reasons these are not constructed from more common discrete inductors and capacitors. Firstly, these filters must handle a bit of power. Not that you can't get high-power discrete capacitors and inductors, but they aren't cheap, or small. But ...


15

Do you have to get permission? No. Few have issues with guests on a repeater (think of travelers passing through, for instance). In the U.S. they can legally prevent someone from using their repeater (see ECFR Title 47, §97.205(e)), but this is not the case in many other countries (repeaters are generally open for all to use). Should I frequently use a ...


15

20 wpm. §97-119: (b) The call sign must be transmitted with an emission authorized for the transmitting channel in one of the following ways: (1) By a CW emission. When keyed by an automatic device used only for identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words per minute;


11

You are experiencing what is commonly called desense (short for desensitization). The strong signal of your transmitter overloads your receiver making it unable to demodulate the much weaker, on-channel signal. If the filters throughout the radio provided a much narrower bandwidth, this effect would be mitigated. But front end filters with less than 600 kHz ...


11

I never saw a standard in the last 25 years. I usually put something in the comment like 'using repeater xxx'. Where the xxx is the callsign of the repeater.


10

I'm still a beginner in this area, so take this answer with a gran of salt. I've had a chance to see a ham test repeaters few days ago, so I'll describe what he did: First and the most obvious, make sure that the transmit and receive frequencies are correctly set on the radio. Go to frequency of interest and listen for a while. If there is a conversation ...


10

The practices vary greatly between areas and countries. In many countries "closed repeaters" don't exist, or are forbidden. In some countries private repeater systems are common, but public ones still exist. Those private repeaters are still likely to happily accept visitors (travellers, for example). It's probably best to ask the guys on the repeater - ...


10

Although much of the main page is not written in English, after you login most of the site is and the RMO Repeater coverage map maker is a wonderful and highly customizable tool even for multi-site repeaters. VA3XPR.Net: Three easy steps to creating RF coverage maps like a pro: Radio Mobile Online is a radio wave propagation prediction tool created ...


8

You are correct that most repeaters that are on buildings or typical towers get their energy from the commercial grid. The repeaters that I own are all commercially powered. Repeaters that are installed in remote locations almost always use solar panels with storage batteries as their energy source. I have talked with one repeater group that supplemented ...


8

The simplest way of accomplishing your goal doesn't require a conventional and expensive repeater system. It's completely passive (no electronics needed). Put a Yagi on your roof pointed at the repeater. Put an upside-down ground plane in your living area. Connect the two antennas with coax. You now have a passive repeater! Signals picked up on the Yagi ...


7

SPLAT! is an RF Signal Propagation, Loss, And Terrain analysis tool for the electromagnetic spectrum between 20 MHz and 20 GHz. It is free and open source, and there are builds for Windows and Mac if you don't want to compile from source on linux yourself. I haven't used it, so I can't speak to ease of use, but it should generate propagation maps based on ...


7

(This is a purely theoretical answer; I have no experience in repeater building. Sorry.) The components of a repeater are: an antenna, a duplexer, a transmitter and a receiver, and a repeater controller. The antenna and duplexer are passive devices and aren't affected by what modulation you're using. The repeater controller is on the audio side of the ...


7

6m works better than 2m when dealing with terrain. For direct line of site, any of the VHF or UHF repeaters will work essentially equally well. Their significant difference comes when one is dealing with obstacles. The larger the wavelength, the more ground effect there will be, which essentially allows the radio wave to hug the ground and thus be propagated ...


7

This type of repeater is sometimes called a linear transponder, particularly when it is installed on amateur radio satellites (I don't know of other uses). There are several problems with using it in the application you propose. Such a repeater cannot improve the signal quality. Whatever noise it receives, it transmits. Therefore, the signal-to-noise ratio ...


6

The vast majority of repeaters you are likely to encounter are open repeaters that allow anyone to use them. Some of the features may be restricted, such as autopatch (connections to a telephone line), but chatting on the repeater is usually open. If you use a particular repeater frequently, you may want to consider joining an associated club, but you ...


6

In my experience since 1992 with some traveling in MD, VA, PA, DE, WVA, NC, FL, CA, & OK I have yet to find a repeater group that has not been friendly to a newbie or visitor. I do usually have the ARRL repeater book with me and am careful to stay off of the few closed repeaters listed.


6

Yes, because you have transmitted but not identified. Whether there is a repeater listening to your transmission is irrelevant.


6

I can find no regulations on courtesy tones whatsoever in part 97, nor any prohibition on transmission of animal noises or having fun. Maybe there's a rule that could be construed... Nope. I got nothing.


6

Repeaters need to receive and transmit at the same time. The offset needs to be large enough to make it possible for the filters to separate the transmit and receive frequencies. In my opinion 600 kHz is a very narrow spacing, it results in filters that are enormous, usually six cavities each 150 x 500 mm. Even so, they have several dB of loss in both ...


6

It is possible to repeat a signal without demodulating it. This is done on some amateur satellites where it is called a linear transponder. The advantage of this method is that it can carry multiple signals, and any mode, including SSB and CW. The disadvantage is that it retransmits all the noise it hears and cannot clean up the modulation along the way — ...


6

I've heard --from reliable sources-- that about the only thing that can stop that is to make recordings that you can send to the FCC. Include well-thought-out documentation with callsigns, times and dates, frequencies, and any other relevant information. The ARRL may contact the FCC for you.


6

Are you up to buying a Raspberry Pi, two USB sound cards, some assorted transistors and such, and making your own interface cable? If so, you can run svxlink. It supports all sorts of fancy things related to internet-linking, remote control, and automation, but you don't need to use any of that; it will also function just fine as a repeater controller for a ...


5

Repeaters take time and money to set up and maintain. Many repeaters are operated by a club or a group - you may want to consider pooling resources with other local hams. Unlike in the US, UK amateur repeaters are individually licensed. You must get approval from Ofcom, including a Notice of Variation. This is because your base license does not allow ...


5

They stay secret because it takes a certain amount of effort and time to decode them - at the very least you need to record the tones and then feed them into a computer program. That means you need to record the entire repeater audio until you catch someone using the autopatch. Of course, you're right - once you have it recorded, it's trivial to decode. I ...


5

As per the etiquette part of the question, the general consensus is to not simply key up for a second. If you don’t want to engage in conversation, but simply want to see if you can access a certain repeater, simply say your call and 'testing'. If you want a signal report from another amateur, state that in plain English. Example: 'This is [your callsign], ...


5

In the USA (based on your callsign) I know the FCC specifies /KT, /AG, /AA and /AE because they are in the US callsign group. According to the FCC (97.119): "If an indicator is self-assigned, it must be included before, after, or both before and after, the call sign. No self-assigned indicator may conflict with any other indicator specified by the FCC Rules ...


5

There is §97.205, which regulates repeater stations: (e) Ancillary functions of a repeater that are available to users on the input channel are not considered remotely controlled functions of the station. Limiting the use of a repeater to only certain user stations is permissible. So if the net is on a repeater, the repeater's control operator can decide ...


5

You are probably experiencing what is called "desense". The strong signal of your transmitting radio is getting into the receiver on the receiving radio and blocking its ability to receive the repeater even though they are on different frequencies. As soon as you stop transmitting, the desense is gone so your receive radio can now hear the squelch tail of ...


5

13.8 and 12.8 are plausible as battery voltages. It is possible that this repeater is solar-powered; to test this theory, notice if the number varies consistently with the time of day (and weather). I do not know what “O-N-I-X HOLT(?)” might mean. “ANALOG” could mean that this is associated with (or is also) a digital-voice repeater in some way.


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