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32

None of them. You say you are in the United States. In general, all radio transmissions fall into one of three categories: The operator is allowed to transmit on that frequency (amateur, "business band", aviation, military, etc.) The radio is allowed to transmit on that frequency (CB, FRS, MURS). The transmissions are very low-power ("Part 15": WiFi, ...


24

Bad etiquette and illegal. Bad etiquette because anyone else scanning the repeater will hear your useless silence, and illegal by §97.119: §97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel at the end of each communication, and at least ...


19

In the United States, Under the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, §97.113 "Prohibited transmissions": (a) No amateur station shall transmit (2) Communications for hire or for material compensation, direct or indirect, paid or promised, except as otherwise provided in these rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control ...


18

The ARRL runs a booth at Dayton Hamvention since 2012 where people can submit their HTs to be tested for spectral purity. Over the years 2016-2019, 100% of the Alinco, Icom, Kenwood, and Yaesu HTs they tested were compliant with the standards laid out in Section 97.307. Only 7.5% of the Baofeng HTs they tested were compliant, with 27% being "borderline" (...


16

They are legal to use, but only on the amateur bands. (Of course, you'll need to get a license first). There was a lot of debate on whether they were legal, but the FCC finally stated that they were. Thus the older search results you found, such as this one. Since they are not type-accepted, they are not legal to use on other bands such as FRS, GMRS, etc.


15

20 wpm. §97-119: (b) The call sign must be transmitted with an emission authorized for the transmitting channel in one of the following ways: (1) By a CW emission. When keyed by an automatic device used only for identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words per minute;


13

Were the contacts on the day of a major contest? Chances are that some other station with a callsign close to yours was operating and several operators misread his call as yours. I, too, get the occasional QSL card or eQSL for a time when I wasn't operating (and they are usually during a major contest). Unless you have definitive proof that someone else ...


13

Are there any documented cases of the FCC actually tracking down and harassing/fining/jailing people for illegal FRS/GMRS transmissions of this sort? You can browse the Enforcement Bureau's Field Notices at http://transition.fcc.gov/eb/FieldNotices/. I did find a few related to FRS violations, e.g. several cases where a company (or even a township water ...


13

I believe you have encountered a Part 15 radio station. United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Part 15 (47 CFR 15) covers such things as garage door openers and the like. As such, and due to the fact that they are unlicensed by definition, there is no station-identification requirement. Note that this section covers both intentional and ...


13

As I understand it, it's legal under FCC rules for anyone, licensed or not, to use any frequency or mode of radio communication as necessary in an emergency. This includes, but is not limited to, police/fire/EMS radios, CB, ham (even tuned outside legal ham bands, if the hardware has the capability), using voice in digital-only or CW-only sub-bands, etc. ...


12

There are two different "Title 47"s in play here. Title 47 of the US Code, as referred to by rclocher3, contains laws passed by Congress on the subject of telecommunications. Most interesting for our purposes is Chapter 5, Subchapter 1 which establishes the FCC. It sets the compositon and appointment rules of the FCC, regulates how the FCC can spend money ...


12

Your problem is that there's really but one globally usable unlicensed band, and that's the 2.4 GHz band. But that doesn't sound so bad. People think "high frequency = short reach", stemming from the well-known Free-Space Path loss formula $$P_r = P_t \cdot G_t G_r \left( \frac{c_0}{4 \pi fd} \right)^2\text,$$ where the received power $P_r$ falls with the ...


11

That's a good question---and one that is heavily under debate currently. The FCC originally limited symbol rates as a way of limiting bandwidth for data modes indirectly (it made sense at the time). But now that there are more advanced modulations (like the various forms of phase shift keying) that can exceed the symbol rate limitations in less bandwidth ...


11

The key wording is in 97.9(b) as referenced in 97.119: ...is authorized to exercise the rights and privileges of the higher operator class... and 97.119 says: "When the control operator is a person who is exercising the rights and privileges authorized by §97.9(b)..." So you only need to use the /AE suffix when you are using privileges only available ...


11

The Current FCC Regulations (as of July 2018) Parts 97.305(c) and 97.307(f) regulate digital modes primarily by symbol rate. The table in 97.305(c) maps bands/frequencies to specific symbol rate limitations in 97.307(f) as follows: (2) No non-phone emission shall exceed the bandwidth of a communications quality phone emission of the same modulation type. ...


11

I have done exactly that. I had a US amateur extra class license when I moved to Germany. As a legal resident of Germany, I applied for and received a reciprocal (no test required) German license with the call DJ0IQ. Yes, it was a requested/vanity call sign to match my US call. The good folks at DARC (the German equivalent to ARRL) helped me with that. ...


11

The regulations for an amateur radio repeater are fairly minimal. To answer your specific questions: "Does one need a particular license?" Your license must permit transmissions on the repeater output frequency. That is, general or higher for 10m, technician or higher for higher frequency bands. There is no special repeater license. (There used to be.) ...


11

The answer is YES! Nothing in the rules prevents you from using the existence of your license to help you get a job. If you plan on going into a radio/TV/Cable engineering job, a amateur radio license(at the Extra level or Advanced Qualifications in Canada) can be very helpful to your career. Study learn the concepts and understand the math to pass the ...


10

This is indeed in the FCC regulations. In Part 97, section 305 regarding "Authorized Emission Types" there is the following chart which lists two relevant subbands, see in the VHF group the 6m row and the Do ditto right below it: Tracing our way outwards from there, we find: 47 CFR §97.305(c) is the heart of the FCC regulation on which the ARRL legend note ...


10

In the United States, for the most part, all radio transmissions fall into one of three categories: The operator is allowed to transmit on that frequency (amateur, "business band", aviation, military, etc.) The radio is allowed to transmit on that frequency (CB, FRS, MURS). The transmissions are very low-power ("Part 15": WiFi, Bluetooth, lots of other ...


10

I just purchased a UV-5R to hopefully integrate into business class radios my company uses. Unfortunately, this is not likely legal. Business radio is licensed under the FCC's Part 90 rules; those rules include 47 CFR § 90.203 - Certification required: "[…] each transmitter utilized for operation under this part […] must be of a type which has been ...


10

Absolutely! FCC Part 15 defines three broad classes of devices: Intentional radadiator. A device that intentionally generates and emits radio frequency energy by radiation or induction. Unintentional radiator. A device that intentionally generates radio frequency energy for use within the device, or that sends radio frequency signals by conduction to ...


10

Here's 47 CFR § 97.313: § 97.313 Transmitter power standards. (a) An amateur station must use the minimum transmitter power necessary to carry out the desired communications. (b) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.5 kW PEP. So sorry, you're only allowed a maximum of 1.5 kW per station, not per antenna. I can anticipate a further ...


9

Part 97 doesn't have anything to say about frequency error or drift in particular. The question pool, however, does: T1B09 (D) [97.101(a), 97.301(a-e)] Why should you not set your transmit frequency to be exactly at the edge of an amateur band or sub-band? A. To allow for calibration error in the transmitter frequency display B. So that modulation ...


9

Your frequency error is the difference between where your transmitter indicates you are transmitting, and where you actually are transmitting. The FCC does not regulate where you think you are transmitting. They only regulate where you are actually transmitting. Consequently, your frequency error can be whatever you want, as long as you keep it in the bands ...


9

This is answered somewhat in this question already, and the answer is no. And I will add some passages about the broadcasting part. To quote the relevant rule §97.113: §97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall transmit: (1) Communications specifically prohibited elsewhere in this part; (2) Communications for hire or for ...


9

Summary: In all cases, no more bandwidth than necessary. §97.307(a), (b) In data portions of LF, MF, and HF bands, 500 Hz. §97.3(c)(2) In the phone portions of LF, MF, and HF bands, no more than "the bandwidth of a communications quality phone emission of the same modulation type." 4 kHz is a good number to put on it, being a typical limit of an ...


9

I've heard --from reliable sources-- that about the only thing that can stop that is to make recordings that you can send to the FCC. Include well-thought-out documentation with callsigns, times and dates, frequencies, and any other relevant information. The ARRL may contact the FCC for you.


9

§97.113(a)(4) states: No amateur station shall transmit [...] obscene or indecent words or language These are not the same regulations that prohibit TV stations from broadcasting obscene or indecent content. However, the above language applies specifically to amateur radio in its entirety. To my knowledge, the U.S. Code does not explicitly state what is ...


9

WA9ZZZ's answer missed the issue of control of the repeater. The repeater must be under control of one or more control operators, or under automatic control, at all times when the repeater is on. There are three types of control: Primary control, where a control operator is physically near the equipment and monitoring the repeater, ready to intervene as ...


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