Questions tagged [transmission-line]

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18
votes
1answer
4k views

How does an SWR meter really work?

For ham radio operators, the SWR meter is a ubiquitous piece of equipment. There are dozens of standalone models on the market and most modern transceivers and antenna tuners have this functionality ...
10
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4answers
1k views

Is there an optimum transmission line length for maximum power transfer?

Consider a typical source -> transmission line -> load (i.e. TX->transmission line->antenna) arrangement and assume that the load is not matched to the transmission line characteristic impedance. It'...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

How do I design a round or square coaxial transmission line to have a specific impedance?

Certain Hex Beam antennas use a coaxial center support post to send the RF to each antenna section, which is superior, in terms of maintenance, to a post with screw terminals connected by short ...
10
votes
1answer
267 views

Does Coax Limit the Maximum SWR a Transmitter 'Sees'?

A recent discussion about SWR led to the assertion that a length of coax cable will ultimately limit the SWR to which the transmitter will be exposed. By experimenting with an SWR calculation tool ...
9
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3answers
1k views

Attic Dipole - Impact of Ethernet over CAT5/6

I've been thinking about putting 20m and 10m dipoles up in my attic (HOA), but I also intend to soon put some Ethernet cable to a WAP (with PoE) through the attic. I was intending to feed this with ...
9
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4answers
2k views

Why does ladder line generally have a lower loss than coaxial cable?

It is well understood in the amateur radio community that ladder line, window line, etc. have lower losses per foot than say RG-213 or LMR400, particularly on HF frequencies. It is also understood ...
9
votes
3answers
178 views

Will there be common-mode currents if a coax followed by a ladder line is terminated in a dummy load?

Assuming an antenna system where a transmitter feeds an ideal coaxial cable which is then connected to an ideal ladder line without a balun: It is often said that common-mode currents appear in the ...
9
votes
2answers
945 views

Importance of Ferrite Size in Coax Choke Balun

The question is quite simple: When making a coax choke balun, does the size of the ferrite matter, and if so, why? I have seen design notes that say to use a single FT240-43 toroid for powers up to ...
8
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2answers
3k views

Why isn't twisted pair used for feedlines?

My son was asking about some Ethernet cable (Cat 5 unshielded twisted pair), and since he recently passed his Technician exam and we both have "radio stuff" on our minds, I tried to make the analogy ...
8
votes
3answers
968 views

What happens in a low loss feed-line with a high SWR

I was recently reading an interesting article from the ARRL to get a better understanding of the SWR. The following case is still unclear: A low loss feed-line with an impedance that doesn't match ...
8
votes
1answer
384 views

SWR Measured at the Transmitter versus SWR at the Antenna

It is fairly well understood that due to transmission line losses, the SWR as measured at the transmitter will be less than the SWR at the antenna. Some of the new antenna analyzers and some vector ...
7
votes
2answers
190 views

Can ferrite beads lower coax cable velocity factor?

For VHF and UHF, it seems reasonable to slip ferrite beads over a coaxial cable to act as a transmission line common mode choke. It also seems reasonable to use beads with the smallest diameter ...
7
votes
2answers
375 views

What does an antenna analyzer tell me about these coaxial cables?

Note: more measurements added after graphs below I recently acquired a RigExpert antenna analyzer and I am trying to learn how to use it to test cables. I took two cables to start with to try and ...
7
votes
1answer
215 views

What exactly does an unun do to the impedance of a transmission line?

If I have a load Z_L and a length of transmission line with impedance Z_0 I know how to compute the impedance at the input to the transmission line (using smith chart or using telegraph equation). ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

What is the minimum signal strength I need to receive?

Let's say a transmitting station is using a 8W radio with a J pole antenna. The cable connecting the radio to the antenna is RG-58A/U and is 25ft long. At 144.075MHz, the attenuation of the cable is ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

How can a quarter-wave transmission line transformer be implemented with lumped elements?

Sometimes designs call for quarter-wave sections of transmission lines. There are some situations when using actual transmission lines would not be practical: The necessary characteristic impedance ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Can a common-mode current exist on the inside of a coax shield?

People often say common-mode current flows on the outside of the shield, while the current on the inside of the shield is always opposed by an equal but opposite current on the center conductor. This ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Understanding coax radiation and "current on the shield"

I'm having trouble understanding what seems to be the fundamental principle behind baluns (and probably other related topics). Perhaps some of my confusion comes from an audio background, where one ...
5
votes
1answer
52 views

For air coax calculation, what is correct diameter metric vis-à-vis tube stock thickness?

I am interested in creating a square outer-conductor with round inner-conductor air coax post for a hex beam antenna. I found the extremely useful information at: How do I design a round or square ...
5
votes
5answers
320 views

(When) does a transceiver re-reflect 100% of reflected power?

There has been a long discussion of one question here. Phil, W8II and I agreed that it's better to post a separate question. There are several sources (some editions of "The ARRL Handbook", &...
4
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1answer
390 views

Does an antenna tuner remove standing waves from a transmission line?

Does an antenna tuner remove standing waves from a transmission line ?
4
votes
4answers
903 views

Why does an RF Amplifier fail when the SWR is high?

Exactly why does an RF output transistor fail if the SWR is bad ? Is it A because the impedance mismatch between the transmission line and the antenna results in maximum power not being transferred ...
4
votes
3answers
660 views

Height and feedline loss tradeoff for VHF

Currently my 2m antenna is about 3m above the ground inside, my HF antenna is connected to 30m (2db loss) coax and is about 12m up. Since the loss for 2m is a lot more when traveling down such a long ...
4
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2answers
3k views

Stub impedance matching

What is the process of stub impedance matching and what are the elements included in the calculations relevant to it?
4
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1answer
226 views

Is this transmission line peak voltage formula published in CQ Magazine more accurate?

In his July 2018 article in CQ magazine entitled “Lightning (and EMP) Surge Protection for HF Radios”, Steven Karty, N5SK based much of his analysis for properly specifying a GDT (Gas Discharge Tube) ...
3
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3answers
406 views

Confusion about dipole standing waves and feed point impedance

The animation below from Wikipedia shows the standing waves of voltage and current on an ideal center fed resonant half wave dipole in free space. The red and blue curves show the change in amplitude ...
3
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4answers
358 views

NMO bicycle mount antenna has unexpected SWR

I built a bicycle antenna mount featuring an NMO connector to allow quick changes. With a 2m 1/4 wave monopole it gives reasonable SWR results (1.4 or so in the band of interest), with a particular ...
3
votes
3answers
517 views

Why is coax loss logarithmic?

With DC hookup wire, losses are directly proportional to length. If the resistance of 100m of wire is 10 ohms then the resistance of 200m of wire will be 20 ohms. But we measure coax loss in decibels ...
3
votes
2answers
60 views

When is it relevant to consider a trace as a RF transmission line

I'm building a simple Greinacher based RF Power meter for the PMR band i.e 446MHz. I intend it to work as a confirmation device and not something really acurate. The circuit is quite simple: The led ...
3
votes
3answers
431 views

How do transmission lines affect the impedance of some arbitrary load?

Let's say I have something like a non-resonant dipole, so that impedance changes depending on frequency and could take any number of values. Whatever that impedance is, how does adding transmission ...
3
votes
2answers
278 views

What is the main source of error for SWR meters?

I have updated this question to make it simpler because i haven't seen an acceptable answer yet. New Question. The impedance seen at any point on a transmission line is E/R. If the SWR isn't 1:1 ...
2
votes
2answers
238 views

Will using a 1:1 balun at the feedpoint of a center feed dipole result in no common mode current on the outside of the coax?

Will using a 1:1 balun at the feedpoint of a center-fed dipole when using coax result in no common mode current on the outside of the coax ?
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Why don't the traveling waves on a dipole go back down the transmission line?

Why don't the traveling waves on a dipole go back down the transmission line ? Why does the standing wave on a dipole stop at the feed point ?
2
votes
3answers
327 views

Are standing waves on a transmission line RF or DC?

I am very confused about Standing Waves on transmission lines. Wikipedia says "a standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Difference between Phase Velocity and Velocity of propagation in a transmission line

I'm confused by the difference between the phase velocity and transmission line propagation velocity. From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_electricity, in a good conductor, phase velocity (...
2
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3answers
279 views

Do stub matching techniques still produce some loss?

I am using a double stacked Yagi-Uda antenna with about 57 Ω impedance. The 50 Ω feed line (coaxial) cables are combined using a tee connector. I observed, at the output of the tee connector, an ...
2
votes
1answer
123 views

Does SWR change along the length of a transmission line?

Wikipedia says "SWR is defined as the ratio of the partial standing wave's amplitude at an antinode (maximum) to the amplitude at a node (minimum) along the line". Standing wave voltage ...
2
votes
2answers
134 views

Voltage wave in transmission lines

The solution for the voltage in a transmission line can be written as: $$V(z) = V_o^+ e^{-jkz} + V_o^- e^{jkz}$$ The voltage $V(z)$ is the difference between the conductors of the line at a certain ...
2
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2answers
100 views

Low mass, low frequency transmission line

I'm interested in a low frequency (10 MHz - 100 MHz) radio receiver array, made up of crossed dipole antennas. I'm working on a design project mainly focused on the mechanical engineering side of ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Apparent Paradox about wave reflection in a transmission line?

The transmission line is without loss of length λ / 4, the load $Z_L$ is a short circuit and $Z_G = Z_0$. At $t = 0$, an incident wave of voltage $V_1$ and current $I_1$ such that $V_1 = Z_0 * I_1$ ...
2
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1answer
253 views

Quarter Wave Transmission Line transformer

Can someone explain to me exactly how a quarter-wave transmission line transformer is put into action? I mean, how does it operate and what values are usually taken into consideration, calculation ...
2
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0answers
48 views

Printed Dipole Transmission Line Equivalent Model

let's consider a printed dipole on a substrate with a GND plane: I've seen many times an equivalent model which uses transmission lines like this (reference): This model is useful to understand the ...
2
votes
2answers
191 views

Reciprocity and SWR [duplicate]

If someone has a high SWR, obviously their signal will not make it out as far due to reflections. However, they will still be able to hear relatively well. I have noticed for receive, a high SWR may ...
1
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2answers
867 views

Exactly why do some SWR meters give a changing reading depending on the length of coax used to connect to an antenna?

Following is my understanding of some theory and the questions are at the end. Is this right ? ... A standing wave is an AC waveform oscillating at a particular frequency which has a varying ...
1
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4answers
295 views

There is no reverse flow of energy in a mismatched transmission line, is this correct?

Is this text correct? I use it when helping people to study for their Licence, and get a lot of indignant scorn for my assertion "It is important to realise, that, after the first brief flutter, no ...
1
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3answers
144 views

Is it true that standing waves on a transmission line don't cause failure of transmitting devices?

Actual standing waves have nothing to do with causing the output device in a transmitter to fail, in fact it's the reverse or reflected current which helped to create the standing waves which is ...
1
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3answers
328 views

Does the impedance along a transmission line change when there are standing waves?

I know the characteristic impedance can't change because it's determined by the physical properties of a transmission line. But the impedance seen when there are standing waves changes along the ...
1
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2answers
4k views

How to calculate Return loss of cascaded system?

If system 1 has 10 dB return loss and system 2 has 20 dB return loss then what is the overall return loss of cascaded system of 1&2 ?
1
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2answers
204 views

what is choking reactance in TLT?

I was studying about the Guanella 1:1 balun and came across the term "choking reactance". What does this mean? Why does its value need to be large?
1
vote
2answers
285 views

Rotary Inductor Replacement

I thought it was time to build a balanced-balanced antenna tuner so I mechanically ganged two B&W 3852 rotary inductors to make a balanced L network. It appears that the 16 uH inductors I used ...