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Questions about power ratings and restrictions, including maximum power by law or for certain components, or about calculating power in certain situations.

1
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1answer
86 views

How is RF Power at Receive Antenna Output Terminals Calculated?

Is the Friis equation sufficient to make this calculation? Must other considerations also be evaluated?
2
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0answers
33 views

SNR measurement for a BPSK/QPSK signal

I have created a software (gnuradio) that performs modulation/demodulation and supports a number of modulation schemes and error correcting codes. I'm in the process of evaluating the BER vs SNR for ...
2
votes
0answers
67 views

Restoring full output power to rig with tube finals

I have a TS-830S that was initially doing about 60W in CW at 10m and 70W at 40m. I've heard these things are capable of at least 100W. Determined, I started doing research on what components to look ...
0
votes
2answers
62 views

Peak envelope power should be 2:1 or 4:1 on meter?

I've always been reading my AM modulated signal on a Bird wattmeter and trying to set the carrier to 1/4 of the peak envelope power (PEP). Recently, I was told by a CBer that you only can see it that ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

USRP Safe Gain Values

I am working with USRP N210 and USRP B200 radios with GNURadio. I have connected the TX/RX port of one radio to the RX2 port of the other with an RF cable as a simulated radio link. In GNURadio, I ...
3
votes
1answer
65 views

Why does the output power of some AM transmitters increase when modulated and of others decrease?

I didn't fully understand all the finer details of AM, so I'd like an explanation for the following behavior: I have 3 radios. In AM mode, one of the radios, when modulated, increases output power ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Intermittent High SWR

Using a Cushcraft MA5B beam, when I apply high power from an amplifier, the SWR will go up and down intermittently. Something is breaking down at high power (200-500 W). I have a new coax feedline, ...
4
votes
2answers
820 views

Decibel subtraction in dBm and dB

If i have equations for subtraction of 27dBm-3dBm=27dBm how can this be written as 24 dB. I convert the 27dBm and 3dBm -> 10^2.7-10^0.3.But how can we simply ...
13
votes
1answer
442 views

How does an SWR meter really work?

For ham radio operators, the SWR meter is a ubiquitous piece of equipment. There are dozens of standalone models on the market and most modern transceivers and antenna tuners have this functionality ...
1
vote
2answers
110 views

Can a Loop Antenna send and receive 10,000 miles away

Can we expect a Loop Antenna such as a Chameleon F-Loop Antenna transmit and receive from the USA's midwest to Australia on HF using an average 100 watt SSB transmitter and an average receiver? If so,...
2
votes
2answers
289 views

Is my low-power VHF transmitter dangerous?

I use a Raspberry Pi for transmitting FM on 107.9 Mhz. It uses square waves and has a power of approx 0.085 Watts, but just to be safe: If I have a 1 watt transmitter approximately 1 metre away from ...
3
votes
2answers
156 views

calculating power from directional coupler

I've designed an pulsed RF generator (50-100 MHz) and am using a directional coupler to measure power into a 50 ohm dummy load. The forward power from the coupler is plugged into a o-scope (hi Z ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

TX output power increase when fed through filter

I came across a weird case, I have a low power 440MHz repeater transmitter, which I thought to set at about 10 watts. I made this measurement using an accurate offset attenuator and service monitor. ...
3
votes
2answers
221 views

What is output power exactly?

I'm trying to comprehend what one would see if one could observe what's happening in the antenna wire. Is the difference between a 1 watt and a 4 watt transmitter just that the amplitude/voltage on ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

RF connector between mobile phone and transmitter = complete shielding?

When connecting mobile to transmitter with RF cable: Does RF connector provide complete shielding for the transmitter signal ? Does it prevent the mobile from receiving other signals from other ...
5
votes
2answers
433 views

What is the purpose of limiting radio output power?

According to article 25, section I, § 4 (25.7) ITU's Radio Regulations: The maximum power of amateur stations shall be fixed by the administrations concerned. In my country this is 500W for CEPT ...
2
votes
1answer
678 views

How to find or derive the maximum safe input power to a receiver?

A number of my RF devices have a specified safe maximum input power, for example: "The maximum RX power of HackRF One is -5 dBm. Exceeding -5 dBm can result in permanent damage!" source "If you look ...
4
votes
3answers
196 views

Why is coax loss logarithmic?

With DC hookup wire, losses are directly proportional to length. If the resistance of 100m of wire is 10 ohms then the resistance of 200m of wire will be 20 ohms. But we measure coax loss in decibels ...
2
votes
2answers
440 views

What is the actual loss in a feed line with high SWR?

It is well-known that it is unwise to have standing waves on the feed line between one's antenna and one's transmitter, unless it is a very low-loss type (e.g. ladder line), because the transmitted ...
2
votes
2answers
104 views

Laptop screen goes blank when transmitting from handheld within a few feet - sometimes

I noticed that when I transmit from my handheld Baofeng Radio, with the standard rubber duck antenna, that my laptop screen goes blank. This only occurs if I'm within a few feet, and even on powers ...
2
votes
2answers
144 views

RF scanner w/ graphic output

I debated putting this question on the electrical engineering forum vs. here. I settled on here since I figured many of you amateur radio experts have probably wondered about this too. I am ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

Signal booster with transistor

How can I make a simple signal booster without introducing too much noise? My first thought was to just feed the signal into transistor base (capable of 4GHz) through a 1K resistor. I could get a 1.2W ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Extracting received power info from teletype like audio

Is it possible to digitally extract received power info (like VU meter perhaps) from and PSK31 audio (or alike), actually the mode for text encoding over audio hasn't been chosen yet and the ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

Why does path loss decrease as frequency decreases? [duplicate]

The Friis transmission equation can be given as: Pr = Pt + Gt + Gr + 20 log10 (λ / 4πR) Where the variables represent: ...
6
votes
1answer
157 views

What would be the typical received power of an “S9” signal?

Obviously, I would expect the amount of power at a receiver would vary greatly based on distance from, and the power/efficiency of, the transmitter. But I don't really have a good sense for what "...
4
votes
1answer
68 views

Signal generator giving DC output?

My signal generator is giving DC at its RF OUT port. At 500 MHz & 1GHz it's giving nearly 1.5V DC when I measure the voltage between the centre pin & outer conductor with a multimeter. I don'...
1
vote
4answers
419 views

Is it safe to live close to cellular antenna?

I saw some apartment in my county in a very good location (quite close to the beach), however, the rent is very cheap. The apartment is the highest on that building, on top of this building there is a ...
1
vote
4answers
412 views

Max legal power with nearly zero BW

I'm developing a type of ground penetrating radar that does not use pulses. It's extremely narrow bandwidth. As narrow as a good crystal can get it. The frequency I'm shooting for initially is ...
1
vote
1answer
393 views

Measuring energy density of 2.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz signals

I'm a math and computer science student, starting to mess around with using amplifiers and antennas to build long-range wifi hardware in my spare time. Calculating the expected power density of a ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

How should this SWR meter's directional coupler work?

I'm wrapping up a "home build" of the MFJ-941EK antenna tuner kit and having trouble getting the wattmeter calibrated. I can't use C4 to get the reflected power reading calibrated down to 0 as is ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Impact of keying-up in yagi beam 1.5m (or 5ft) away on 2m FM?

Asking for a friend, of course, this homebrew yagi is probably somewhere between 3 and 6dB gain (not yet analysed) and was aimed about +30 degrees off-center, tilted 10-20 degrees upwards, ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the power increase required to double the range of RADAR?

Studying for a Pivate Pilot's Licence (PPL) and I've hit something in the study material that doesn't make sense to me. Typical of the PPL study material, it's quite shallow, so the full explanation ...
7
votes
1answer
210 views

Why bother to have a high power base station when mobile units are generally low-power?

I want to find out why, say in a GSM/cellular system, a base station can be up to 50 watts however the mobile units can be only 100mw (for example). Surely if the base station ever uses 50w to reach ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Transformer secondary coil impedance [closed]

To transfer maximum power from the secondary coil to the load, I need to find secondary coil impedance. My load impedance 5 - J365. I would design a matching circuit between load and secondary coil, ...
2
votes
3answers
521 views

Peak Envelope Power (PEP) = Transmitter Power?

I need to determine the Peak Envelope Power for the VSAT station. Given that the modulation is not AM, would it be correct to assume that the PEP will be the same as transmitter power?
2
votes
2answers
257 views

What restrictions exist for non-HAMs in the 5.8 GHz band?

What restrictions exist for non-HAMs in the 5.8 GHz band in the USA? Context: these types of popular video transmitters (600 mW, 25 mW) commonly used for FPV piloting. Any requirements to have a HAM ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Power Density Function

A radio receiver needs $1 \textrm{ nW}/\textrm{m}^2$ of power density function, how far away from a 1-watt point source will it continue to work?
1
vote
1answer
185 views

Why are many FHSS / DSSS transcievers limited to 63 mW?

While researching a DIY digital video streaming solution for an outdoor quad-rotor project, I've noticed that a lot of the popular digital transceivers seem to be limited to 63mW transmit power: http:...
2
votes
2answers
105 views

What does radiation power mean?

I would like to ask you what it means when it is written that a transmitter has 10 dBm power. Does that mean that 10 dBm is provided to the antenna, or that 10 dBm is measured at particular frequency ...
3
votes
1answer
768 views

How does power received by a dipole relate to electric field intensity?

Let's say there's a transmitter far away, and I'm going to receive the transmitted signal. To keep things simple let's further say the transmitted signal is a pure, unmodulated sine wave. Further, let'...
5
votes
1answer
644 views

Can I touch the ground of a PWR/SWR meter?

I'm planning to build a 5W PWR/SWR meter very similar to this design by G3YMC, but with two meters: I'd like to put it in this metal box, and use the box as ground. However, the bottom of the box ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

decibels as ratio and dBm as absolute values

I am just trying to understand the nitty gritty of using decibels and absolute measurements in dBm. I see them referred to routinely in RF, and using reference sheets I can understand enough to make ...
4
votes
2answers
213 views

Yaesu exceeding power limit under certain conditions

I noticed something fairly interesting today, under certain operating conditions my FT857D will exceed the power limit, the highest I saw it go was around 150W! This happened when the power was set to ...
5
votes
3answers
569 views

Is possible to make small HF microstrip or helical antenna by using high permittivity dielectric material?

Is possible to make small HF microstrip or helical antenna by using high permittivity dielectric material like SrTiO3 ?
0
votes
2answers
603 views

High data rate on HF & MF bands

Is it possible to transfer data at a high rate, like 1-2 Mbps, on 0.5 - 30 MHz? From Shannon's Theorem, with a bandwidth of just 300 kHz it is possible to reach 1.5 Mbps. I want to use these bands ...
3
votes
1answer
160 views

Would a switched RF attenuator be (a)symmetric?

I picked up this 0-80 dB switched RF attenuator at a flea market, with no part number or other useful markings other than the knob settings. I've tested it and confirmed that it works, but there's one ...
8
votes
3answers
5k views

What is dBm and why is it used rather than watts?

Reading through an RF power amplifier datasheet, I found the sheet only referenced dBm output power, rather than watts. What is dBm? How do I convert it to watts? Why, or when, would you use dBm to ...
1
vote
1answer
852 views

Is transmission wattage calculated using RMS?

I understand (and correct me if I'm wrong) that transmission power follows Ohm's law ($I = \frac{V}{R}$), that is that if I have a 50 Ω antenna that I know is transmitting at 1 W, then the current is: ...
4
votes
1answer
217 views

Does the Crystal Radio really work?

I am in 12th std, the reason why I am mentioning this is that we are given a PROJECT to do in Physics subject. And then one day I searched the internet and found this amazing thing called 'Crystal ...
8
votes
2answers
427 views

What are the (US) rules about unlicensed low-power transmissions?

It is common wisdom that transmissions of any sort (perhaps unidentified, encrypted, in the FM broadcast band, etc.) are permitted if they are sufficiently low power. Where are the FCC regulations ...