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Questions tagged [propagation]

Questions about RF propagation including measurements, beacons, modes (ionospheric, tropospheric, ground wave), etc.

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Loop antenna layout and radiation?

I've got, for the near term, limited resources to put up an HF antenna at my home. One of the options I can manage without excessive cost is a loop, which would enclose the house. I need to transmit ...
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3answers
129 views

Given the classical top down view, what does a bottom up view of RF waves look like?

Quote from Wikipedia, Photons: "Nevertheless, all semiclassical theories were refuted definitively in the 1970s and 1980s by photon-correlation experiments. Hence, Einstein's hypothesis that ...
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3answers
81 views

Line of sight from geographic/map data?

I have line of sight issues with repeaters I want/need to use (it's a repeater network my club uses). One of the options that might be available to me is to install a "passive repeater" in a location ...
2
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2answers
81 views

Is there a trick for reaching a repeater “through” terrain?

I live in a draw, well below local average ground level. There are two repeaters I want to be able to use (because they're in the network my club uses). One is in the 440 band, thirty miles away but ...
3
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1answer
74 views

How can I be sure I'm actually hitting the repeater?

I'm just starting to use 2m and 70cm bands, which normally use repeaters to extend range beyond a mile or two (limited mostly by line of sight, as I understand it). When I'm at home, however, I'm not ...
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1answer
39 views

High-resolution GIS datasets of groundwave conductivity of the United States, besides the FCC?

The FCC publishes a map of estimated groundwave conductivity of the United States, but the resolution is quite low: Are there any GIS datasets that include groundwave conductivity at a higher ...
3
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1answer
149 views

Where does the year 2019 fall in the sunspot cycle for HF propagation?

I am reposting this question about the year 2016 here. This is 2019. Are we now at the good or bad portion of the 11 years cycle? What effect are we seeing now? How large (strong/deep) is the effect ...
4
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4answers
145 views

Better explanation for beyond-line-of-sight VHF signal reach than “lower curvature to radio waves”

I am currently studying for the Technician Exam and have come across an answer to a question I think is ridiculous. The question is: Why do VHF/UHF signals usually travel somewhat farther than ...
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4answers
535 views

How far do radio waves travel?

I have read that radio waves just keep traveling but the signal gets weaker because of how the wave spreads. OK, I get this, but what confuses me is that satellites emit signals from space that our ...
4
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1answer
203 views

Why are the lower HF frequencies not working during winter day time?

Currently my location is Nepal. We use the ICOM f-7000 radios without the antenna tuner. We use the frequencies round about 5-9 MHz, for communication over distances between 150 and 400 km. During ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Why does signal power drop every night?

I have been monitoring power of a P25 control channel (at about 850MHz). For awhile, 24 hours a day. I graphed the power over a couple of weeks and it is almost sinusoidal, decreasing significantly ...
6
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1answer
545 views

Do short waves pass through or reflect off concrete buildings?

I live in Moscow, Russia and use DIY indoor magnetic loop antennas to listen amateur radio. Recently I received quite strong signals from Italy (20m, IV3UTV) and Slovenia (40m, S51CK), both operators ...
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1answer
79 views

Is there any way in which elevation *does* affect medium frequency (AM radio) transmissions?

This is a followup to this question of mine. From reading the wiki article, I get that: Radio waves at MF wavelengths propagate via ground waves and reflection from the ionosphere ( called skywaves)...
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2answers
218 views

Using approximate signal strength at a distance to estimate reception strength of a radio station

I have some historical data on radio stations, but unfortunately, the dataset only has these variables: the power of the transmitter, in watts the coordinates of the radio tower Unfortunately, I don'...
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1answer
98 views

How is RF Power at Receive Antenna Output Terminals Calculated?

Is the Friis equation sufficient to make this calculation? Must other considerations also be evaluated?
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2answers
94 views

True near field distance for a short monopole antenna?

Antenna properties: Height x Diameter = 3.3 inches x 1.4 inches Test Frequency: 900 MHz (Wavelength = 33 cm or 13 inches) I see some conflicting formulas to calculate the near field distance for ...
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0answers
27 views

To decide coherent time and fade duration from measured received signal spectrum and relate them to channel modeling

This question was asked in Electrical Engineering 2 days ago but hasn't received very informative responses. https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/387255/decide-coherent-time-and-fade-...
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3answers
194 views

Should Hams Using Skywaves Be Concerned About Their Groundwave Radiation?

Comments posted on various websites relating to amateur radio posit that the groundwave is unimportant for skywave paths. Is this concept correct?
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1answer
120 views

Two way ham radio to communicate between two stations

Apologies if this not the right place for this question. I'm into electronics and now endeavouring into radios and communications. Unfortunately I'm not sure what terms to use to find what I'm ...
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1answer
85 views

Does the E-field propagate faster that the H-field?

I need some proof that the electric (E-field) and the magnetic component (H-field) of a lightning stroke both propagate at the speed of light, and that there is not a significant delay between them. ...
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1answer
39 views

Is it correct to apply the log-distance path loss model for an in-body radio propagation?

The application is an implanted sensor and I am asked to characterize the transmission channel. I did measurements with bio-equivalent liquid and got a plot of the path loss over distance. The ...
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4answers
5k views

When will propagation on HF improve?

Will the propagation on the High Frequency bands come back up soon?? I am referring to the 3 to 30 MHz range.
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2answers
170 views

Communications : Ground wave propagation

I was studying ground wave propagation, my book writes the lines about it without explaining it. I really do not know any explanation for these queries coming in my mind. I've Googled it, and you will ...
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2answers
139 views

Can a Loop Antenna send and receive 10,000 miles away

Can we expect a Loop Antenna such as a Chameleon F-Loop Antenna transmit and receive from the USA's midwest to Australia on HF using an average 100 watt SSB transmitter and an average receiver? If so,...
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2answers
188 views

How can Ground Penetrating Radar work?

I was reading about GPR devices recently. Considering the operation frequency of these devices, how they can go that deep (up to 50 feet)? Normally you would only expect a Hz to KHz range signal to ...
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6answers
529 views

Can I talk 2 Meter VHF across the United States

Can I talk on 2 meters from the east coast to the west coast without using repeaters?
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2answers
205 views

How is it possible for an HF signal to go around the world when part of it must be in sunlight?

I believe most of us know about the ionosphere, and skywave propagation, but I'm kind of tripping up on the D-layer. If the ionospheric D-layer absorbs HF signals (40 meters, for example) during the ...
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2answers
120 views

Can you create a radio beam with a Faraday cage?

Imagine we have an isotropic antenna at the origin emitting a steady sine wave at frequency $f$. Encompassing the antenna is a sphere of radius $r$ made of a fine copper mesh (with holes $\ll\frac\...
3
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3answers
359 views

Why is VHF better than UHF in this situation?

One of the sample questions for the British foundation level test is: An amateur has the choice of VHF or UHF for a particular contact of some 25km. Which statement below best describes his choice? ...
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2answers
405 views

Difference between Phase Velocity and Velocity of propagation in a transmission line

I'm confused by the difference between the phase velocity and transmission line propagation velocity From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_electricity, in a good conductor, phase velocity (...
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7answers
7k views

What is the cause of this unusually long period of terrible HF band conditions?

I've been a ham for over 40 years, but never has there been such a prolonged period of such poor propagation. This has been especially the case over the past six months or so, and they continue to ...
5
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1answer
331 views

Does geology affect radio signals?

following on from an earlier question about Iron Ore affecting radio waves... are there any other geological properties that can affect radio waves? Are certain frequencies more susceptible to ...
5
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1answer
365 views

Troposcatter: really all that bad?

The previous question, Packet Radio at 100 miles and specifically, Phil's answer raised an interesting question: In a 50–100 km distance situation where Line-Of-Sight beams aren't an option for ...
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5answers
249 views

How to learn about the physics behind propagation?

What are good sources for information about the propagation of RF that details the equations behind the curtain? I've been able to find some simple stuff on wikipedia but nothing fancy that I'm sure ...
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4answers
570 views

How does VHF/UHF propagate beyond the expected (radio) horizon?

I am not asking about the fairly well-known effect of the earth "appearing less curved to radio waves" that are otherwise still essentially line-of-sight, but a deeper arcanum: In the ARRL Antenna ...
2
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2answers
223 views

(HF) How to maximize probability of successful transmit given constrained packet duration? [closed]

I need a HF link that will be (mostly hah) operational 24/365. Edit: at least at local daytime. The link is supposed to transmit a controlling signal (just one bit) in one direction for quite a ...
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1answer
111 views

How to compute/simulate signal propagation latency?

I need to transmit small amounts of data (~5kb/s) in the fastest way possible over the distance around 2500 km. What is the the best way to carry out such transmission? How could I estimate or ...
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1answer
155 views

What is the best way to get propagation VHF map for FM repeater?

Is there a way to get a professional propagation map for my VHF 50 watt repeater?
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1answer
147 views

No stations on MW band at daytime

I have a portable radio which serves for FM / MW / SW bands. At nights I can listen to 4-6 international channels from different countries on MW. However, I am unable to tune them at daytime. Is it ...
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1answer
1k views

What's the difference between “maximum usable” and “critical” frequencies?

In discussing HF ionospheric propagation, you hear about both "critical" and "maximum usable" frequencies. For example: Above the critical frequency, the ionosphere is unable to refract the signal ...
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0answers
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Can two directional antennas be connected without an amplifier to improve reception? [duplicate]

Can two identical yagi antennas be linked together to improve a cell phone signal? The idea is to put one antenna on the rooftop and the other in the house, and connect the two with feedline but no ...
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3answers
149 views

If EM waves require no medium, why can't I get service at all times?

I have taken two years of high school physics and am very interested in RF communication. I know that electromagnetic waves do not necessitate a medium in order to propagate. Thus, shouldn't I be able ...
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2answers
7k views

Where year 2016 falls in the sun spot cycle for HF propagation?

Are we now at the good or bad portion of the 11 years cycle? What effect are we seeing now? How large (strong/deep) is the effect during the peak and bottom of cycle? What will change in coming years?
3
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1answer
63 views

What causes the audio distortion when working aurora?

I recently watched a video of someone making an auroral voice contact, and the received audio had a distinctively raspy and disembodied sound to it. Some CW was audible in the background and it had ...
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2answers
232 views

What is “Meter” referencing in “60-Meter Band”?

I know that there are various bands referenced in meters (or cm). My question refers to what exactly the word "meter" is referring to when identifying the 5MHz band? I know that the 60-meter band is ...
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4answers
4k views

What is propagation like when there are no sunspots?

Am considering getting my license again after raising kids, and wondering if there is any point in HF operation besides local chats — that is, what is propagation like when there are no sunspots?
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2answers
327 views

Incoming angle of radio signal reflected off of ionosphere

I am about 870 miles and 16 degrees due west of WWVB at Ft. Collins, CO. WWVB transmits at a frequency of 60 KHz. At this distance I should be getting the signal reflected from the ionosphere. If I ...
2
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1answer
189 views

How do I simulate a receiving antenna in EZNEC simulation tool?

I have a situation where I need to find receiving antenna impedance when it’s $\lambda/2$ distance from the transmitting antenna. Both are dipole antennas. Is it possible with EZNEC?
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1answer
201 views

How far the near-field reactive region extends from the transmitting antenna?

I am doing research on near-field harvesting. In my situation the transmitting antenna is a dipole antenna operating at 2.45 GHz and its length is 14 cm long. I am trying to find how far near-field ...
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2answers
254 views

Acceptable link margin for voice communication in uhf band

I want to understand the theory behind how link margin or fade margin is decided? If I have to have a point to point UHF voice communication link from ground to aircraft, for example, with a ...