Questions tagged [antenna-theory]

Designing antennas, selecting antennas for specific applications, properties of a given antenna design.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
24
votes
4answers
14k views

What is the relationship between SWR and receive performance?

If an antenna analyzer shows 1:1, does that mean it's an ideal receiver as well? And what about the converse, will a well performing receive antenna show a 1:1 SWR? I've wondered this for a while, ...
11
votes
6answers
38k views

What is a Gamma match in the context of the driven element of a Yagi antenna?

How (and why) does a Gamma match work, when used on the driven element of a Yagi antenna? As shown here: (source: http://www.iw5edi.com/ham-radio/?2-element-yagi-for-10-meters-band,49) The article ...
14
votes
4answers
7k views

What does the addition of a shield to a small loop accomplish?

A small shielded loop is an antenna with a loop of wire, smaller than 1/10th of a wavelength in diameter, also surrounded by a shield. Often, they are constructed from coax. There is a gap in the ...
18
votes
1answer
4k views

How does moving a feedpoint off-center in a dipole affect the resonant frequency and resistive load?

Specifically, I understand that OCF dipoles change the SWR, but does it do this via reactance or resistance, or both?
17
votes
3answers
12k views

What is the peak voltage at the tips of a dipole antenna?

What is the peak voltage present at the very end tips of half-wave dipole antenna in free space, and how might this peak voltage relate to transmitter type, transmitter power, RF frequency vs. antenna ...
5
votes
2answers
14k views

What is the aperture efficiency of an antenna?

For reflector antennas, I see a number called aperture efficiency. What does it mean?
11
votes
4answers
1k views

What is the advantage of making an antenna resonant?

I am constructing a small loop antenna; apprx 4' diameter, will be used with an antenna tuner (mounted at the feedpoint) and 100W transmitter, and hope to use it on 20m, 40m, and maybe other bands if ...
10
votes
7answers
10k views

What is the impedance of an end-fed half-wave antenna?

It is my understanding that the feed-point impedance ($Z_a$) of an end-fed half-wave antenna is dependent on at least the following factors: $L_a$: The length of the radiating element of the antenna. ...
23
votes
2answers
4k views

How do Handheld antennas work without ground?

Dipoles have the 2 wires going to each leg of the antenna completing the circuit. Big AM towers use the second wire as a ground plane But how to handheld rigs transmit and recieve with just one wire ...
13
votes
5answers
5k views

How does a folded dipole work?

A folded dipole is like an ordinary dipole, but with the ends extended and folded back, until they meet. Although it looks like a loop, I'm told it behaves similarly to a dipole. How does this thing ...
9
votes
7answers
13k views

When and why does the size of a ground plane or radials matter?

Consider these three cases: My understanding is that when building or installing an antenna designed to operate over a ground plane (e.g. a quarter-wave vertical), the size of the ground plane does ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Dipole Antenna Current Distribution at any Time Instant

Above is a connection of half-wave dipole antenna. The book states that the current profile is same at any given time instant on both the radiators, each of quarter wavelength length. Now my ...
5
votes
1answer
11k views

How to calculate single-stub match (general case)?

I'm trying to build a 1/2 wave "Coaxial J-Pole" antenna, similar to what is described here: Such an antenna would be great for stringing up in a tree when operating remotely, no tuner needed. The ...
3
votes
1answer
362 views

Is it possible to make a shield that blocks time-varying electric fields, but not time-varying magnetic fields?

Take, for example, a shielded loop antenna. It is often claimed that the antenna is inside the shield, and the shield blocks electric fields from reaching the antenna, while allowing magnetic fields ...
2
votes
4answers
504 views

Does a resonant antenna work better than a non-resonant antenna?

Some books on antenna fundamentals i've read recently say that, for a half wave resonant dipole when transmitting for example, the traveling wave of movement of charges reflected back from the ends of ...
7
votes
8answers
10k views

How does the length of a metal sleeve around a (shieled) coax cable affect antenna performance?

A post on http://adsbexchange.com/forums/topic/beginners-2-cantenna-easy-diy-antenna-to-improve-rangeplane-count uses a $\frac{\lambda}{4}$ sleeve made of a pop can beneath a $\frac{\lambda}{4}$ wire ...
18
votes
5answers
15k views

Why do folded dipoles have greater bandwidth than ordinary resonant dipoles?

This is something I've read in passing, but never encountered an explanation of why. For example, Wikipedia says: Another common place one can see dipoles is as antennas for the FM band; these are ...
9
votes
2answers
779 views

If two antennas of 50 Ω and 377 Ω have VSWR=1:1, then which one is more efficient?

If there are two antennas of 50 Ω and 377 Ω (same as the intrinsic impedance of air) impedance with 0 $\Omega$ ohmic resistance, and they are exactly matched with their transmission line, then which ...
9
votes
1answer
4k views

How does a slot antenna work?

How does a so-called slot antenna work? How can one construct one? What might be the radiation pattern and efficiency compared to a wire antenna? And, if a small slot antenna "works" at mobile ...
5
votes
2answers
6k views

What is the impedance of a 1.25 λ dipole antenna?

I would like to make a dipole antenna. This particular antenna is used for reception only; no transmission is involved. I would like to receive as much power as possible by this antenna as it is used ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

How do you calculate the field strength at a given distance?

Given this question from the full license exam in the UK: What is the field strength at a distance of 7m from an antenna with an effective radiated power of 100W? in which the answer is: 10 V/m ...
6
votes
3answers
947 views

Can an antenna be too powerful for certain receivers?

I'm brand new to shortwave radio and have been researching what kind of a receiver to get. I'll use it on the antenna I'll build (longwire, 50-100 feet) for shortwave listening; no transmitting. Right ...
5
votes
5answers
312 views

(When) does a transceiver re-reflect 100% of reflected power?

There has been a long discussion of one question here. Phil, W8II and I agreed that it's better to post a separate question. There are several sources (some editions of "The ARRL Handbook", &...
4
votes
2answers
295 views

Why do horizontally-polarized RF waves reflect better off ground than vertically-polarized waves?

It's a well-known fact among hams who use HF frequencies that horizontally-polarized RF waves reflect better off of ground than vertically-polarized waves. This explains why ground conductivity is so ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Voltages in a beam antenna's passive elements?

This question has good answers for the voltages reached in portions of a dipole antenna during transmit. In a beam (Yagi or Yagi-Uda) antenna, do points along passive or parasitic elements (...
4
votes
1answer
539 views

Dipole Center Spacing

I have a question about dipole construction. I am working with a turnstile, but building dipoles to validate my system with linearly polarized transmission before moving on to circular. My design has ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

What happens to a vertical Yagi when you mount it on a vertical metal pole?

How much difference does a metal pole make when it's sitting in the middle of all the lower elements of my beautiful new highly optimized to the max YO.EXE 10 m yagi ? I get it that the closeness of ...
2
votes
6answers
656 views

For a half wave dipole antenna, what's the value of the reactances that cancel out when the antenna is resonant?

According to a few books and articles on antenna fundamentals I've read recently, including Wikipedia and the ARRL Handbook, when a half wave dipole is resonant, the inductive and capacitive ...
2
votes
5answers
1k views

What happens if an HF dipole is made longer?

Does a longer dipole (than half wavelength), for example twice as long, tuned to 50 Ω using an antenna tuner perform better than a half wavelength dipole for the same frequency?
2
votes
2answers
86 views

Will a HF beam antenna on rooftop building interfere with other antennas there

I am moving into an apartment on the top floor of a building and I intend to install a HF beam antenna for 20 to 10 meters, on the rooftop of the building. I notice that there are already some ...
1
vote
4answers
125 views

Which 10 m antenna will give the most rejection in one direction for received signals which are vertically polarized?

I want to null out a particular direction so that i can't receive some vertically polarized interference on 10 m coming from that direction. Which 10 m antenna will give the most rejection in one ...
0
votes
1answer
103 views

For a center fed half wave dipole operated at resonance, are the voltage and current in phase only at the feed point?

For a center fed half wave dipole operated at resonance, the voltage and current at the feed point are in phase in time and there is zero reactance present in the impedance seen at the feed point. For ...
12
votes
4answers
2k views

Are antennas circuits?

For an antenna to work, doesn’t charge have to flow through it? A current must be present. To me it indicates it must be a circuit, but how is a dipole a circuit? If they are not circuits, then how ...
19
votes
3answers
3k views

Why do amateur radio operators call an RF choke a balun?

When using a balanced antenna such as a half wave dipole, with an unbalanced feed line such as coax, an RF choke can be used to block RF current emitted by the transmitter from splitting up at the ...
18
votes
1answer
27k views

How does a mag mount antenna achieve a ground plane?

I've been thinking for some time about magnet mount mobile antennas and wondering how they establish their ground plane. Consider that many mag mount antennas have some kind of protective coating on ...
8
votes
2answers
5k views

How far does an antenna need to be from metal to avoid problems?

Living in an apartment, I'm struggling to get good antennas set up, especially for HF. Worse yet, I'm not allowed external antennas (but am willing to try something low profile on the balcony), my ...
17
votes
3answers
3k views

What is a "random wire antenna"?

Some antenna tuners claim to match any “random wire” to any HF frequency. Can one really use a random wire as a practical antenna system? From everything I have heard, the resonance of the antenna (...
12
votes
6answers
28k views

Calculating Antenna Length on the FCC Exam vs. in Reality

I have seen the following formulas for calculating half and quarter wavelength antennas: Formula for $\frac{1}{2}$-wavelength antenna (in free space): \begin{equation} \mathrm{Length~(feet)} = \frac{...
10
votes
2answers
3k views

Can every antenna be used both for transmit and receive?

Assuming I have an antenna for receiving GPS signals, can I use it also for transmit — to create a repeater in a tunnel (or some place with no reception)?
6
votes
1answer
231 views

Two antennas on different sides of a building

I live in the 4th floor of a building with one side facing south and the other north. I am able to use my 2M mobile base transceiver with a mobile magnet mount antenna placed just outside the window. ...
6
votes
2answers
236 views

For a resonant 1/2 wave dipole, does the reflections being in phase with the applied signal cause the zero reactance seen in the feedpoint impedance?

For a resonant 1/2 wave dipole when used for transmitting, does the fact that the reflected waves on the antenna are in phase with the applied signal result in zero reactance at the feed point, or ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

antenna in the rain

What kind of changes can be expected in the behavior (resonance, SWR, etc.) of a mobile vertical HF antenna between dry conditions and wet rainy weather? (assume a coax feed-line and low SWR in dry ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

How to calculate or estimate surface area of required ground plane for a mobile antenna?

I don't have conditions for installation of a fixed 2 m/70 cm antenna at home, so I'm thinking of using a mobile magnetically mounted antenna on a conductive plate instead. So my question is: What ...
5
votes
5answers
10k views

Does a 1/2 wavelength end-fed antenna need a good RF ground?

I was searching for DIY end-fed antenna. Some of the articles I found say that for a 1/2 wavelength end-fed I need a "small to no counterpoise" (with a lambda*0.05 m counterpoise), but some other ...
5
votes
3answers
306 views

How far the near-field reactive region extends from the transmitting antenna?

I am doing research on near-field harvesting. In my situation the transmitting antenna is a dipole antenna operating at 2.45 GHz and its length is 14 cm long. I am trying to find how far near-field ...
3
votes
3answers
4k views

Using inner conductor of a coax feedline as an antenna

Can I use the inside conductor of coax to radiate RF energy? My in-laws have some sort of attic antenna installed many years ago for broadcast reception, which I would love to temporarily co-opt for ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Is it possible to calculate the Q factor for an antenna type, given a frequency?

With only pen and paper, is it possible to calculate the ideal Q-factor for e.g. a dipole antenna, loop etc, given a frequency?
2
votes
3answers
890 views

Why long wire antenna length shouldn't be a multiple of λ/2?

Numerous sources say that LW length shouldn't be a multiple of λ/2 for any frequency in interest. This will cause the antenna to have a high impedance at this frequency. Since the coax cable impedance ...
1
vote
2answers
192 views

1/8 wave 3-element 2m beam antenna

Here's what I am working on, and someone please tell me if I'm doing this right or wrong, but be kind and gentle. Center frequency 146.520MHz Driven element is 1/8 wave 10.25" long set at 6.125&...
0
votes
4answers
195 views

Why is a half wave dipole resonant?

Is the following explanation correct ? RF energy with a wavelength equal to twice the electrical length of the dipole is applied to the feed point at the center of the half wave dipole. To understand ...