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I have two 1:4 voltage baluns. If I connect them together so that I have 1:4-4:1, is that the equivalent of putting a 1:1 common mode choke on my feed line?

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No.

Say you take just one of the 1:4 baluns, and connect it like so:

schematic

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab

Since the winding ratios are not equal, then equal and opposite currents will not cancel each other's magnetic flux, so there will be a net non-zero flux in the core. Thus, it presents an inductance to common-mode currents.

Now if you add another in series:

schematic

simulate this circuit

there's still non-zero flux in the core. It simply doubles the common-mode impedance.

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