Amplifiers, as commonly used in amateur radio, are unidirectional. e.g. separate amplifiers, if any, are used for transmitting from a station, and for receive.
So if you have an amplifier in the transmit path (on signals from a transmitter to an antenna). It likely has little affect on the receiver (other than parasitics, relay contact resistance, etc.) when not transmitting.
An amplifier in the receive path (either an LNA at the antenna, or stuff inside the receiver), similarly, has little effect on the transmit signal (except perhaps as part of a sophisticated adaptive pre-distortion scheme, such as "pure signal").
An amplifier in the receive path amplifies both environmental and antenna RF noise and signals of interest, so may or may not help that much (improve S/N), if the receiver is already sensitive enough to pick up the RF noise floor in the band of interest with a few dB of margin.
So, neither, potentially, allows "hearing" weaker signals, which may or may not be further away, due to propagation, antenna gain, terrain, and many other parameters.