# How Accurately Does NEC-based Antenna Software Calculate Vertical Monopole Antenna System Radiation Efficiency for "Far-Field" (Only) Conditions?

A common belief among amateur radio operators is that the radiation efficiency of a vertical monopole driven against the Earth is much less than that of an elevated, horizontal dipole of the same aperture (and other things equal). But is that belief correct?

• This question may be ill posed, as useful radiation efficiency (to some set of possible targets) is different from theoretical efficiency (which includes radiation straight down through the planet from a horizontal dipole). And the term "same aperture" again depends on your choice of integration surface, which again might or might not include the portion of RF energy that warms up your lawn. Aug 30 at 16:20