How to calculate internal impedance of a dipole antenna? Its resistance has two components ie wire resistance and radiation resistance, both these can be calculated using formula. Are there formula to calculate capacitance and inductance of an antenna? Or they are calculated empirically only?
A couple of minor comments on terminology. It isn't so much the "internal" impedance of the antenna but it is typically the "feed point" impedance that is of concern. This is the impedance seen where the transmission line connects to the antenna. Another common impedance of interest is the radiation resistance. This is the effective resistance attributable to converting the RF signal to a radiating electromagnetic wave. This impedance is often of interest when determining the efficiency of an antenna.
Yes, there are many such formulas just like the ones in the answer you saw linked in the comments. From an academic and research perspective, the formulas are under constant improvement and refinement. This usually translates into more complexity in the formulas in exchange for greater accuracy or detail.
Most professional antenna engineers and amateur radio antenna enthusiasts have transitioned to antenna modeling software. These software packages produce extensive data such as the input impedance but also go on to produce renderings of radiation patterns and other useful information. Within an hour or so, nearly any common antenna can be extensively analyzed using such software without any knowledge of calculus.
Several of these packages are available for free or on a trial basis. Here is one popular example: 4NEC2
I assume you are referring to the feedpoint resistance and reactance. Stearns, K6OIK, Antenna Impedance Models, presented at ARRL Pacificon 2004 is an excellent treatment of the subject.
Keep in mind that a center-fed, infinitely thin, physical half-wave dipole in free space has an impedance of 73+j42.5 ohms; many of the calculations in the reference use this as the baseline for computation.
you can calculate the impedance of your actual antenna if you setup a test jig and take a number of readings. w2aew explains this very well in a youtube video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYN7dhdt1Dw this method requires a signal generator and an oscilloscope, we don't all have the luxury to own these items but you can still learn the theory of what he's doing. you either need to be confident in complex number maths, have a nice scientific calculator or use online tools to solve the maths. the equation itself is just like solving current and resistance in simple voltage divider circuits... but each element has an amplitude and phase.