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Just for additional information, I live in the United States.

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    $\begingroup$ I fail to see how this is too broad. There are very specific privileges gained with each new license level. $\endgroup$ – Duncan X Simpson Aug 31 '17 at 5:03
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Frequencies

The most significant difference between the license levels is that of band access. You can find a list of the various band allocations, with notes on what levels are allowed access, here:

http://www.arrl.org/frequency-allocations

There's also a handy chart of the allocations available here:

http://www.arrl.org/graphical-frequency-allocations

Power

Some of the lower license classes also specify a lower maximum power level for certain bands (e.g. Novices are limited to 25W in the 1.25m band).

Note that higher levels of license are still subject to the overall maximum limit - ham radio in the US is limited to 1.5 kW PEP (peak envelope power).

Type of operation

Some of the lower license classes limit the operator to a certain type of operation such as CW (morse code) on certain bands.

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  • $\begingroup$ Note that power levels aren't always 1500 W - they are limited sometimes regardless of class. 1W EIRP on 2.2km, 5 W EIRP on 630m, 100 W PEP on 60m using 1/2 wave dipole, 200 W PEP on 30m. And there may be additional limits depending on where you are. $\endgroup$ – user3486184 Sep 8 '17 at 18:05

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