For example, A1A is "morse telegraphy by on-off keying". What are the others?
I found the answer in this article in the Wikipedia: types of radio emissions. From that article you can construct the different codes for different modes but there's a list of common examples:
- A3E: AM speech communication – used for aeronautical communications
- F3E: FM speech communication – often used for marine radio and many other VHF communications
- 20K0 F3E: Wide FM, 20.0 kHz width, ±5 kHz deviation, still widely used for Ham Radio, NOAA weather radio, marine, and aviation users and land mobile users below 50 MHz 1
- 11K2 F3E: Narrow FM, 11.25 kHz bandwidth, ±2.5 kHz deviation – All Part 90 Land Mobile Radio Service (LMRS) users operating above 50 MHz were required to upgrade to narrowband equipment by 2013-01-01.   
- 6K00 F3E: Even Narrower FM, future roadmap for Land Mobile Radio Service (LMRS), already required on 700 MHz public safety band
- J3E: SSB speech communication, used on HF bands by marine, aeronautical and amateur users
R3E: SSB with reduced carrier (AME) speech communication, primarily used on HF bands by the military (a.k.a. compatible sideband)
N0N: Continuous, unmodulated carrier, formerly common for radio direction finding (RDF) in marine and aeronautical navigation.
- A1A: Signalling by keying the carrier directly, a.k.a. Continuous Wave (CW) or On-Off Keying (OOK), currently used in amateur radio. This is often but not necessarily Morse code.
- A2A: Signalling by transmitting a modulated tone with a carrier, so that it can easily be heard using an ordinary AM receiver. It was formerly widely used for station identification of non-directional beacons, usually but not exclusively Morse code (an example of a modulated continuous wave, as opposed to A1A, above).
- F1B: Frequency-shift keying (FSK) telegraphy, such as RTTY.[a]
- F1C: High frequency Radiofax
- F2D: Data transmission by frequency modulation of a radio frequency carrier with an audio frequency FSK subcarrier. Often called AFSK/FM.
- J2B: Phase-shift keying such as PSK31 (BPSK31)